Chemistry Project on Preparation of Potash Alum

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Preparation of Potash Alum

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT

DIST: AMRELI

GUJARAT

BY:-ANURAG AGARWAL

ROLL NO:

XII SCI.

2009-2010

PRINCIPAL                                INTERNALEXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

CERTIFICATE

Certificate

This is to certify that this project work is submitted by ANURAG AGARWAL to the Chemistry department, Aditya Birla Public School, Kovaya was carried out by him under the guidance & supervision during academic year 2008-2009.

Principal                            Teacher

Mrs. Raji Jayaprasad        Mr. B.D.KOTWANI

Aditya Birla public School               (Head of chemistry dept.)

Kovaya

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Acknowledgement

I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to Principal, Mrs. Raji Jayaprasad, Aditya Birla public school, kovaya for her encouragement and for all the facilities that she provided for this project work. I sincerely appreciate this magnanimity by taking me into her fold for which I shall remain indebted to her.

I extend my hearty thanks to Mr. B.D.KOTWANI, chemistry HOD, who guided me to the successful completion of this project. I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for his invaluable guidance, constant encouragement, constructive comments, sympathetic attitude and immense motivation, which has sustained my efforts at all stages of this project work. I am also thankful to Mr. Pankaj Bajpai who has helped in each step of my project work.

I can’t forget to offer my sincere thanks to my classmates who helped me to carry out this project work successfully & for their valuable advice & support, which I received from them time to time.

ANURAG AGARWAL.

DECLARATION

Declaration

I do hereby declare that this project work has been originally carried under the guidance and supervision of Mr. B.D. KOTWANI, head of chemistry department, Aditya Birla Public School, Kovaya.

ANURAG AGARWAL.

Roll NO.

INDEX

Index

1) Certificate                                           (ii)

2) Acknowledgement                                    (iii)

3)       Declaration                                         (iv)

4) Dedication                                          (vi)

5) Introduction                                        07

6) Aim                                                     10

7) Requirements                                     10

8) Theory                                                11

9) Reactions                                            12

10) Procedure                                           13

11) Observations                                      15

12) Result                                                  15

13) Bibliography                                       16

DEDICATION

Dedication

I DEDICATE THIS PROJECT     WORK TO THE LOTUS FEET OF

MY FATHER

MR.K.M.AGARWAL

&

MY MOTHER

MRS. RAMA AGARWAL

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Aluminium because of its low density, high tensile strength and resistance to corrosion is widely used for the manufacture of aeroplanes, automobiles lawn furniture as well as for aluminium cans. Being good conductor of electricity it is used for transmission of electricity. Aluminium is also used for making utensils. The recycling of aluminium cans and other aluminium products is a very positive contribution to saving our natural resources. Most of the recycled aluminium is melted and recast into other aluminium metal products or used in the production of various aluminium compounds, the most common of which are the alums. Alums are double sulphates having general formula

X2SO4.M2(SO4)3.24H2O

X = Monovalent cation;            M = Trivalent cation

Some important alum and their names are given below:

K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O - Potash Alum

Na2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O - Soda Alum

Introduction

K2SO4.Cr2(SO4)3.24H2O - Chrome Alum

(NH)2SO4.Fe2(SO4)3.24H2O -  Ferric Alum

Potash alum is used in papermaking, in fire extinguishers, in food stuffs and in purification of water soda alum used in baking powders and chrome alum is used in tanning leather and water proofing fabrics.

In addition to these primary uses, alum is also used as

  1. An astringent a substance or preparation that draws together or constricts body tissues and is effective in stopping the flow of blood or other secretions. Alum has also been used by conventional hairdressers for treating shaving cuts,
  1. A mordant substances used in dyeing to fix certain dyes on cloth. Either the mordant (if it is colloidal) or a colloid produced by the mordant adheres to the fiber, attracting and fixing the colloidal mordant dye. The insoluble, colored precipitate that is formed is called a lake. Alum is a basic mordant used for fixing acid dyes.

Introduction

  1. For the removal of phosphate from natural and waste waters the aluminium ions of alum combine with the orthophosphate around pH 6 to form the solid aluminum hydroxyphosphate which is precipitated and
  1. For fireproofing fabrics The major uses of alums are based on two important properties, namely precipitation of Al(OH)3 and those related to the acidity created by the production of hydrogen ions.

Al(H2O)6+3 → Al(OH)3 ↓ + 3H2O + 3H+

The H+ ions generated are used foe reacting with sodium bicarbonate to release CO2. This property is made use of in baking powder and CO2 fire extinguishers.

AIM

Aim

To prepare potash alum from aluminium scrap

REQUIREMENT

Requirement

v    250 ml flask

v    Funnel

v    Beaker

v    Scrap aluminium or cola can

v    Potassium hydroxide solution (KOH)

v    6 M Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4)

v    Water Bath

v    Ethanol

THEORY

Theory

Aluminum metal is treated with hot aqueous KOH solution. Aluminium dissolves as potassium aluminate, KAl(OH)4, salt.

2Al(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 6H2O(l)¾® 2KAl(OH)4 (aq) + 3H2

Potassium aluminate solution on treatment with dil. Sulphuric acid first gives precipitate Al(OH)3, which dissolves on addition of small excess of H2SO4 and heating.

2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)¾® 2Al(OH)3 (s) + K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 H2SO4(aq)¾® Al2(SO4)3(aq) +6H2O(l)

The resulting solution is concentrated to near saturation and cooled. On cooling crystals of potash alum crystallize out.

K2SO4(aq) + Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 24H2O(l) ¾® K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3. 24H2O(s)

REACTIONS

Reactions

2Al(s) + 2KOH (aq) + 6H2O (l) ¾® 2KAl (OH)4 (aq) + 3H2

K2SO4(aq) + Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 24H2O(l) ¾® K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.

24H2O(s)

2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 H2SO4(aq) ¾® Al2(SO4)3(aq) +6H2O(l)

2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)¾® 2Al(OH)3 (s) + K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

K2SO4(aq) + Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 24H2O(l) ¾® K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.

24H2O(s)

PROCEDURE

Procedure

  • §Clean a small piece of scrap aluminium with steel wool and cut it into very small pieces. Aluminium foil may be taken instead of scrap aluminium.
  • §Put the small pieces of scrap aluminium or aluminium foil (about 1.00g) into a conical flask and add about 50 ml of 4 M KOH solution to dissolve the aluminium.
  • §The flask may be heated gently in order to facilitate dissolution. Since during this step hydrogen gas is evolved this step must be done in a well ventilated area.
  • §Continue heating until all of the aluminium reacts.
  • §Filter the solution to remove any insoluble impurities and reduce the volume to about 25 ml by heating.
  • §Allow the filtrate to cool. Now add slowly 6 M H2SO4 until insoluble Al(OH)3 just forms in the solution.

Procedure

  • §Gently heat the mixture until the Al(OH)3 precipitate dissolves.
  • § Cool the resulting solution in an ice-bath for about 30 minutes whereby alum crystals should separate out. For better results the solution may be left overnight for crystallization to continue.
  • § In case crystals do not form the solution may be further concentrated and cooled again.
  • § Filter the crystals from the solution using vacuum pump, wash the crystals with 50/50 ethanol-water mixture.
  • § Continue applying the vacuum until the crystals appear dry.
  • § Determine the mass of alum crystals.

OBSERVATION

Observation

Mass of aluminium metal              =…………….g

Mass of potash alum                      =…………….g

Theoretical yield of potash alum   =……………g

Percent yield                                         =……………%

RESULT

Result

Potash alum of        % yield was prepared from aluminium scrap.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliography

v   iCBSE.com

v   Wikipedia,

v   Chemicalland.com

v   books.google.co.in


PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 1 A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT DIST: AMRELI GUJARAT BY:-ANURAG AGARWAL ROLL NO: XII SCI. 2009-2010 PRINCIPAL INTERNALEXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 2 CERTIFICATE Certificate This is to certify that this project work is submitted by ANURAG AGARWAL to the Chemistry department, Aditya Birla Public School, Kovaya was carried out by him under the guidance & supervision during academic year 2008-2009. Principal Teacher Mrs. Raji Jayaprasad Mr. B.D.KOTWANI Aditya Birla public School (Head of chemistry dept.) Kovaya PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Acknowledgement I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to Principal, Mrs. Raji Jayaprasad, Aditya Birla public school, kovaya for her encouragement and for all the facilities that she provided for this project work. I sincerely appreciate this magnanimity by taking me into her fold for which I shall remain indebted to her. I extend my hearty thanks to Mr. B.D.KOTWANI, chemistry HOD, who guided me to the successful completion of this project. I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for his invaluable guidance, constant encouragement, constructive comments, sympathetic attitude and immense motivation, which has sustained my efforts at all stages of this project work. I am also thankful to Mr. Pankaj Bajpai who has helped in each step of my project work. I can’t forget to offer my sincere thanks to my classmates who helped me to carry out this project work successfully & for their valuable advice & support, which I received from them time to time. ANURAG AGARWAL. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 4 DECLARATION Declaration I do hereby declare that this project work has been originally carried under the guidance and supervision of Mr. B.D. KOTWANI, head of chemistry department, Aditya Birla Public School, Kovaya. ANURAG AGARWAL. Roll NO. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 5 INDEX Index 1) Certificate (ii) 2) Acknowledgement (iii) 3) Declaration (iv) 4) Dedication (vi) 5) Introduction 07 6) Aim 10 7) Requirements 10 8) Theory 11 9) Reactions 12 10)Procedure 13 11)Observations 15 12)Result 15 13)Bibliography 16 PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 6 DEDICATION Dedication I DEDICATE THIS PROJECT WORK TO THE LOTUS FEET OF MY FATHER MR.K.M.AGARWAL & MY MOTHER MRS. RAMA AGARWAL PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 7 INTRODUCTION Introduction Aluminium because of its low density, high tensile strength and resistance to corrosion is widely used for the manufacture of aeroplanes, automobiles lawn furniture as well as for aluminium cans. Being good conductor of electricity it is used for transmission of electricity. Aluminium is also used for making utensils. The recycling of aluminium cans and other aluminium products is a very positive contribution to saving our natural resources. Most of the recycled aluminium is melted and recast into other aluminium metal products or used in the production of various aluminium compounds, the most common of which are the alums. Alums are double sulphates having general formula X2 SO4 .M2 (SO4 )3 .24H2 O X = Monovalent cation; M = Trivalent cation Some important alum and their names are given below: K2 SO4 .Al2 (SO4 )3 .24H2 O - Potash Alum PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 8 Na2 SO4 .Al2 (SO4 )3 .24H2 O - Soda Alum Introduction K2 SO4 .Cr2 (SO4 )3 .24H2 O - Chrome Alum (NH)2 SO4 .Fe2 (SO4 )3 .24H2 O - Ferric Alum Potash alum is used in papermaking, in fire extinguishers, in food stuffs and in purification of water soda alum used in baking powders and chrome alum is used in tanning leather and water proofing fabrics. In addition to these primary uses, alum is also used as i. An astringent a substance or preparation that draws together or constricts body tissues and is effective in stopping the flow of blood or other secretions. Alum has also been used by conventional hairdressers for treating shaving cuts, ii. A mordant substances used in dyeing to fix certain dyes on cloth. Either the mordant (if it is colloidal) or a colloid produced by the mordant adheres to the fiber, attracting and fixing the colloidal mordant dye. The insoluble, colored precipitate that is formed is called a lake. Alum is a basic mordant used for fixing acid dyes. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 9 Introduction iii. For the removal of phosphate from natural and waste waters the aluminium ions of alum combine with the orthophosphate around pH 6 to form the solid aluminum hydroxyphosphate which is precipitated and iv. For fireproofing fabrics The major uses of alums are based on two important properties, namely precipitation of Al(OH)3 and those related to the acidity created by the production of hydrogen ions. Al(H2 O)6 +3 → Al(OH)3 ↓ + 3H2 O + 3H+ The H+ ions generated are used foe reacting with sodium bicarbonate to release CO2 . This property is made use of in baking powder and CO2 fire extinguishers. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 10 AIM Aim To prepare potash alum from aluminium scrap REQUIREMENT Requirement  250 ml flask  Funnel  Beaker  Scrap aluminium or cola can  Potassium hydroxide solution (KOH)  6 M Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4 )  Water Bath PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 11  Ethanol THEORY Theory Aluminum metal is treated with hot aqueous KOH solution. Aluminium dissolves as potassium aluminate, KAl(OH)4 , salt. 2Al(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 6H2 O(l)  2KAl(OH)4 (aq) + 3H2 Potassium aluminate solution on treatment with dil. Sulphuric acid first gives precipitate Al(OH)3 , which dissolves on addition of small excess of H2 SO4 and heating. 2KOH(aq) + H2 SO4(aq)  2Al(OH)3 (s) + K2 SO4(aq) + 2H2 O(l) 2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 H2 SO4(aq)  Al2 (SO4 )3(aq) +6H2 O(l) The resulting solution is concentrated to near saturation and cooled. On cooling crystals of potash alum crystallize out. K2 SO4(aq) + Al2 (SO4 )3(aq) + 24H2 O(l)  K2 SO4 .Al2 (SO4 )3 . 24H2 O(s) PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 12 REACTIONS Reactions 2Al(s) + 2KOH (aq) + 6H2 O (l)  2KAl (OH)4 (aq) + 3H2 K2 SO4(aq) + Al2 (SO4 )3(aq) + 24H2 O(l)  K2 SO4 .Al2 (SO4 )3 . 24H2 O(s) 2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 H2 SO4(aq)  Al2 (SO4 )3(aq) +6H2 O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2 SO4(aq)  2Al(OH)3 (s) + K2 SO4(aq) + 2H2 O(l) K2 SO4(aq) + Al2 (SO4 )3(aq) + 24H2 O(l)  K2 SO4 .Al2 (SO4 )3 . 24H2 O(s) PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 13 PROCEDURE Procedure  Clean a small piece of scrap aluminium with steel wool and cut it into very small pieces. Aluminium foil may be taken instead of scrap aluminium.  Put the small pieces of scrap aluminium or aluminium foil (about 1.00g) into a conical flask and add about 50 ml of 4 M KOH solution to dissolve the aluminium.  The flask may be heated gently in order to facilitate dissolution. Since during this step hydrogen gas is evolved this step must be done in a well ventilated area.  Continue heating until all of the aluminium reacts.  Filter the solution to remove any insoluble impurities and reduce the volume to about 25 ml by heating. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 14  Allow the filtrate to cool. Now add slowly 6 M H2 SO4 until insoluble Al(OH)3 just forms in the solution. Procedure  Gently heat the mixture until the Al(OH)3 precipitate dissolves. Cool the resulting solution in an ice-bath for about 30 minutes whereby alum crystals should separate out. For better results the solution may be left overnight for crystallization to continue. In case crystals do not form the solution may be further concentrated and cooled again. Filter the crystals from the solution using vacuum pump, wash the crystals with 50/50 ethanol-water mixture. Continue applying the vacuum until the crystals appear dry. Determine the mass of alum crystals. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 15 OBSERVATION Observation Mass of aluminium metal =…………….g Mass of potash alum =…………….g Theoretical yield of potash alum =……………g Percent yield =……………% RESULT Result Potash alum of % yield was prepared from aluminium scrap. PREPARATIOIN OF POTASH ALUM 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography   Wikipedia,  Chemicalland.com  books.google.co.in

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