Submitted by Editor
Chemistry Investigatory Project
It gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude towards our chemistry teacher Mrs._______ for her guidance, support and encouragement throughout the duration of the project. Without her motivation and help the successful completion of this project would not have been possible.
This is to certify that Punit Gaur of class XII has completed the chemistry project entitled
‘FORMATION OF BIO DIESEL’
Himself and under my guidance. The progress of the project has been continuously reported and has been in my knowledge consistently.
What is Biodiesel?
Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, made by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat (tallow), which can be used (alone, or blended with conventional petrol diesel) in unmodified diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel is distinguished from the straight-vegetable oil (SVO) (sometimes referred to as “waste vegetable oil” “WVO” “used vegetable oil” “UVO” “pure plant oil”, “PPO”) used(alone, or blended) as fuels in some converted diesel vehicles.”Biodiesel” is standardized as mono-alkyl ester and other kinds of diesel-grade fuels of biological origin are not included.
Uses of biodiesel
Instructions to Prepare Bio Diesel
Measure out 200 ml of antifreeze and put it in one plastic container.
Add in lye so that the antifreeze is absorbed.
Cover container and mix well by shaking it. It is mixed when it starts to feel warm and is foamy. The mixture has now become sodium methoxide.
Blend 1 liter of vegetable oil with the sodium methoxide in a blender for 20 minutes.
Pour mixture into a bottle and wait 8 hours until the byproduct, glycerin, separates form the biodiesel. The glycerin will be on the solid on the bottom.
Separate out the biodiesel by pouring into a glass bottle.
Prepare a wash bottle by poking a small hole in the corner of the bottle and covering it with duct tape.
Wash the biodiesel by pouring it into the wash bottle and adding in ½ a liter of water. Roll the bottle around to mix it and then remove the duct tape and drain the water.
Repeat the washing process until the biodiesel is clear. This may need to be done numerous times over the course of a week to complete the process. Store the biodiesel in a glass container until ready to use.
Animal & plant fats & oils are typically made of triglycerides which are esters of free fatty acids with the trihydric alcohol, glycerol. In the transesterification process, the alcohol is deprotonated with a base to make it a stronger nucleophile. Commonly, ethanol or methanol is used. As can be seen, the reaction has no other inputs than the triglyceride & the alcohol.
Normally, this reaction will precede either exceedingly slowly or not at all. Heat, as well as an acid or base are used to help the reaction more quickly.
Biodiesel is a much cleaner fuel than conventional fossil-fuel petroleum diesel
Biodiesel’s fuel features
Power: One of the major advantages is the fact that it can be used in exiting engines & fuel injection equipment (no modification required) without negative impact to operating performance.
Fuel availability/economy: Virtually the same MPG rating as petrol-diesel & the only alternative fuel for heavyweight vehicles requiring no special dispensing & storage equipment.
Production/Refining: Can be done at home (wasted veggie oil) & farms (virgin oils from seeds), being the only alternative fuel that can boost of a zero total emissions production facility. By selling the simultaneously produced glycerol, the cost of BD is basically the same cost of the oil used to make it.
Storage: Readily blends & stays blended with petrol-diesel so it can be stored & dispensed wherever diesel is stored or sold.
Combustibility/Safety: Biodiesel has a very high flash point (300⁰F) making it one of the safest of all alternative fuels.
Lubricity: The only alternative fuel that can actually extend engine life because of its superior lubricating & cleaning properties. The present “low sulphur” diesel fuel is badly wearing the injection pumps of not protected diesel engine.
Usage: Biodiesel fuel can generally be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel engines without modification, and it can be distributed through existing diesel fuel pumps. This is an advantage over other alternative fuels, which can be expensive to use initially due to high cost of equipment modifications or new purchases. Biodiesel provides almost the same energy per gallon as petroleum diesel.
Environment Impact: The only renewable alternative diesel fuel that actually reduces major greenhouse gas components in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel will also reduce the following emissions: carbon monoxide, ozone-forming-hydrocarbons, hazardous diesel particulate, acid rain-causing sulphur dioxide, lifecycle carbon dioxide.
Disadvantages of Biodiesel
All the information in the project has been gathered from internet.
Always remember that you are absolutely unique. Just like everyone else. - Margaret Mead