Submitted by Editor
Bal Bharati Public School
TOPIC:- Extraction of Essential
Oil from Aniseed (Saunf).
NAME:- Siontan Ghosh
Faculty:- MR. Ashish pagare
Incharge Teacher External Examiner
(Mr. Ashish Pagare)
I hereby express my gratitude to my Principal Sri K. T. Johnson and Sri Ashish Pagare for their guidance throughout my studies. I also thank my parents who supported me in all my endeavors. I also thank my classmates who have equally worked hard to make my project a success. I also thank my partner Ayushi Vyas for helping me during the project. And last but not the least I thank the almighty for whatever I have achieved till now.
|6.||Aniseed Essential Oil||8|
|7.||Uses of Aniseed Essential Oil||10|
|8.||Requirements & Procedure||11|
To extract essential oil present in Saunf (aniseed).
We are all familiar with the pleasant odours coming out from flowers, spices and many trees. The essence or aromas of plants are due to volatile oils present in them. These smelling volatile oils present in plants are called essential oils. Cinnamon, clove, cumin, eucalyptus, garlic, jasmine, peppermint, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, thyme, wintergreen are a few familiar examples of valuable essential oils. The term “essential oils” literally means “oils derived from the essence” of plants.
Essential oils are mainly used for their pleasant odours and flavors in perfumes and as flavoring agents in foods. Some are used in medicines (e.g., camphor, wintergreen, eucalyptus) others as insect repellants (e.g., citronella). Chemically essential oils are composed of complex mixtures of ester, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. They are essentially non-polar compounds and are thus soluble in non-polar solvents such as petroleum ether, benzene etc. Essential oils may occur in all parts of the plant, but they are often concentrated in the seeds or flowers. They are obtained from the plants by the process of steam distillation and extraction. The technique of steam distillation permits the separation of volatile components from non-volatile materials without raising the temperature of the distillation above 100° C.
Thus steam distillation reduces the risk of decomposition of essential oils.
ANISEED ESSENTIAL OIL
v Aniseed, on steam distillation, yields an essential oil, known as `Oil of Aniseed`, which has now replaced the fruits for medicinal and flavoring purposes. Aniseed oil is a colorless or pale-yellow liquid having the characteristic odor and taste of the fruit. The yield of oil generally varies from 1.9 to 3.1 per cent. Higher values up to 6 per cent have been reported from Syrian aniseed. Crushing of fruits prior to distillation gives better yields of oil. The material should be distilled soon after the crushing to prevent any loss of oil due to evaporation. Aniseed oil is a highly refractive liquid, which solidifies on cooling. The congealing point depends much on the anethole content and is a valuable criterion for evaluating the oil. Exposure of the oil to air causes polymerization, and some oxidation also takes place with the formation of anisaldehyde and anisic acid.
v The chief constituent of aniseed oil is anethole, which is present to the extent of 80 to 90 per cent and is mainly responsible for the characteristic flavor of the oil. The oil also contains methyl chavicol, p-methoxyphenyl acetone, and small amount of terpenes and sulfur containing compounds of disagreeable odour.
Aniseed Essential Oil
vCommon Method of Extraction:- Steam Distillation
vBotanical Name:- Pimpinella anisum
vAromatic Description:- Distinctive scent of licorice. Rich and sweet.
vConstituents:- a-pinene, camphene, B-pinene, linalool, cis-anethole, trans-anethole, safrole, anisaldehyde, acetoanisole.
Uses of Aniseed Oil:-
Steam generator (Copper Vessel), round bottom flask (500 ml), conical flask, condenser, glass tubes, iron stand, sand bath, separatory funnel, tripod stands, burners, Ajwain(Carum), Petroleum ether(60-80°C),Saunf(Aniseed) .
1.) Saunf (Aniseed):-
Weight of Saunf taken = 100 gm
Initial Weight of the bottle = 10gm(x)
Weight of bottle + essential oil = 11.25 gm(y)
Weight of essential oil extracted =(y-x) =1.25 gm
Percentage of essential oil = (y/100)*100=1.25 %
Colour of the oil = Colourless
Odour of the oil = Saunf like smell.
2.) Ajwain (Carum):-
Weight of Saunf taken = 75 gm
Initial Weight of the bottle = 10 gm(x)
Weight of bottle + essential oil = 11 gm(y)
Weight of essential oil extracted =(y-x) =1 gm
Percentage of essential oil = (y/75)*100=1.33%
Colour of the oil = Colourless
Odour of the oil = Ajwain like smell.
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