TAXONOMY OF LIVING ORGANISMS
Linnaeus and binomial nomenclature – history and types of classification – status of bacteria and viruses – botanical garden and herbaria – zoological parks and museums and economical and cultural importance – salient features of various plant groups – classification of angiosperms up to series level (Bentham and Hooker’s system) – salient features of nonchordates upto phylum level and chordates up to class level.
Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, Neo-Lamarkism – modern concepts of natural selection – theories and evidences of evolution (fossil record and biochemical evidences) – sources of variation, mutation, recombination, genetic drift, migration, natural selection – origin and concepts of species: speciation and isolation (geographical and reproductive).
Cell theory (Schelieden and Schwann) – Discovery of cell and cell as a self contained unit – prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their ultrastructures– unicellular and multicellular organisms – tools and techniques used in cell biology – compound microscope and electron microscope – cell division: amitosis, mitosis and meiosis.
Heredity and variation – Mendel’s laws of inheritance – chromosomal basis of inheritance – linkage and crossing over – mutation and chromosomal aberration – sex linked inheritance – Karyotyping analysis – chromosomal mapping – DNA as a genetic material: structure, replication – RNA structure and types – genetic diversity.
MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
Introduction and history of microbiology – Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Robert Koch, Lister – Virology: structure, genetics, culture and diseases – bacteriology: structure, genetics and diseases – Protozoan microbiology – pathogenecity of microorganisms – antimicrobial resistance and chemotherapy – innate immunity – lymphoid organs, thymus – T-cells, Bcells ; immunoglobins structure – transplantation and types – immune system disorders.
Morphology of root, leaf, stem, flowers and their modifications – tissue and tissue systems – anatomy of mono and dicot roots, leaves and stems – secondary growth – Photosynthesis: light and dark reactions, C3 and C4 plants – Photophosphorylation: cyclic and noncyclic – photorespiration – transpiration – types and modes of nutrition – mechanism of respiration – glycolysis – Kreb’s cycle – anaerobic pathway – compensation point and fermentation – respiratory quotient (RQ).
Nutrition: Digestion, Body-mass ratio, calorie value (ICMR standards), balanced diet, obesity –respiration: inspiration, expiration, exchange of gases, process of pulmonary respiration – Digestion: enzymes and its action – Muscular systems: mechanism of action – Circulation: mechanisms of blood circulation, structure of heart – Excretion: ureotelism, urea biosynthesis, nephron ultrafilteration – nervous system: physiology, coordination systems, brain function and receptor organs – reproduction: spermatogenesis, oogenesis, in vitro fertilization – endocrines: harmones and their functions.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Concept of gene – central dogma of molecular biology – gene regulation – rDNA technology –– transgenic plants and microbes – gene cloning – genetically modified organisms – gene expression – gene bank – management of plant and animal genetic resources – genetic conservation – microbial type culture – genetic typing studies.
ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Human population and explosion – ecosystems – ecological succession – conservation and biodiversity (Biosphere reserves) – wild life: legislation and conservation of wild life – global warming crisis and green house effect – biogeochemical cycle (O2 , C and N elements) – extinction of species – waste management – pollution (water, air, soil, noise and temperature).
APPLIED BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE
Plant tissue culture and applications – livestock and management – cattle breeding and poultry – farming methods – pisciculture – crops of economic importance: food yielding rice, oil yielding : groundnut, fibre yielding cotton, timber yielding teak – food production: breeding experiments, Biofertilizers – brief account of crop and animal diseases and their control – ethical concerns – biopatent – biopiracy – genetically modified foods – biowar – bioethics – gene therapy – recent advances in vaccine development.