JNTU MSc (Environment) Syllabus
Discipline – 1
(ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY)
(ENVIORNMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY)I. CHEMISTRY (20) Questions (20) Marks
- Chemical Kinetics: Types of chemical reactions I, II & III order reactions equations and constants. Kinetic theory of gases; rates of chemical reactions; theories of reaction rates collision and transition state theory; temperature dependence of chemical reactions; consecutive reactions, steady state approximation, kinetics of photochemical reaction, kinetics of free radical polymerization, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
- Thermodynamics-. Definition of terms-First law of thermodynamic and its application to gases-Heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure-isothermal and adiabatic changes-Joule Thompson effect-Work of expansion-Reversible pressure and maximum work. Heat changes in chemical reaction at constant pressure and constant volume and their interrelation- Heats of formation, combustion, solution, dilution, and neutralization- Hess law, and its applications-Kirchoof’s equation-Second law of thermodynamics-Carnot cycle-entropy change elementary concept of entropy and free energy.
- Non-Transition Elements: General characteristics, structure and reactions of simple and industrially important compounds, boranes, silicates, diamond and graphite, oxides and oxoacids of N.P.S. and halogens, borazines, phosphazenes, xenon compounds. Structure of simple inorganic solids, band theory, metals and semiconductors.
- Co-ordination Compounds: Double salts and coordination compounds-Early theories of coordination compounds -Werner’s theory-Sidgiwick’s electronic interpretation-EAN rule- nomenclature-magnetic criteria of bond type-valance bond theory-Elementary treatment of crystal field theory, splitting of d-orbitals for octahedral, square planner and tetrahedral geometry,- isomerism- Storeisom & Geometrical isomerism-optical isomerism-detection of formation of complexes-Composition by Job’s method-Stability, constants-Factors affecting the stability of complexes-importance of complexes in qualitative and quantitative analysis.
- Structure of Organic Compounds Aliphatic and aromatic compounds – empirical & molecular formulae-functional groups-IUPAC nomenclature-isomerism and stereo- chemistry-structural isomerism (chain, position, and functional group isomerism)-Carbohydrates: open chain and cyclic structures of glucose and fructose, inter-conversion of mono saccharides. mention the configuration of (+) glucose and (-) fructose). Structure and properties of protcins. lipids and Nucleic acids.
- Photo chemistry:Basic principles, photochemistry of olefins, carbonyl compounds arenas, photo oxidiation and reduction, pericylcic reactions, cycloadditions electrocyclic reactions and sigma tropic reactions. Woodward Hoffman rules Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms.
- General characters of protozoa bacteria, virus, algae and fungi and their classification and significance.
- Microbial Nutrition: Nutritional requirements-types of media: nutritional types
- Kinetics of Microbial Growth-growth curve generation time and growth rate continuous culture-Chemostat-turbidostat.
- Microbial biochemistry: Glycolysis E D & HMP pathways TCA cyucle electron transport chain-anaerobic respiration-fermentation-oxygenic and anoxygenic photo synthesis-cyclic and Noncyclic photophosphorylation.
- Physical and chemical agents for control of micro organisms-sterilization-disinfection- antisepsis.
- Applied Microbiology of water, wastewater, soil, food and air.
- 1 . Introduction of ecology and Ecological Factors.. various branches and its relation to other sciences-Fundamental concepts of Ecosystem taking terrestrial, Deciduous forest, Scrubers Jungle, Mangrove pond and Estuarine as examples, Food chains, Energy flow, Tropic levels. Physical factors-temperature, light, Water, their effects on organisms, adaptations of organisms to these factors.
- Community Structure-Ecological succession and Population Ecology
- Environmental pollution, atmosphere,-Air pollution, Hydrosphere-Water pollution Lithosphere-soil pollution and their health effects.
- Agrochemicals plant Disease Control Chemicals, Pesticides-Fungicides. Plant Growth Hormones. Environmental effects of Agrochemical and Pesticides.