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# JNTU MSc (Chemistry) Syllabus

Discipline -6

M.Sc. (CHEMISTRY)

Industrial Chemistry  / Analytical Chemistry /  Drugs & Pharmaceuticals PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY ATOMIC STRUCTURE : Hydrogen spectrum, planck’s quantum theory Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, Energy levels and explanation of hydrogen spectra, limitations of Bohr’s theory. Quantum numbers, wave nature of electron and uncertainity principle – Schrodinger wave equation Dependence of probability functions on distance from nucleus and directions – shapes of atomic orbitals  (Calculation involving frequency and Rydberg’s constants), Concept of chemical bonding ionic bonding and covalent bonding. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM : Reversibility – Dynamic nature of equilibrium Kp, Kc and their interrelation, derivation of quantitative expressions for equilibrium constants for a few typical reactions, factors effecting the equilibrium constants. GASEOUS STATE : kinetic theory of gases – Derivation of kinetic equation and deduction of gas laws – Mean free path, collision number and collision diameter – principle of equipartition of energy – Heat capacities for mono, di and tri atomic molecules deviation from gas laws – vanderwaal’s equation Critical phenomenas – Isotherms of carbondioxide – Determination of critical constants – Derivation of relation between vanderwaal’s constants and critical constants – law of corresponding states and its usefulness/applications. SOLUTIONS: Solution of gases in liquids – Henry’s Law – Binary liquid mixtures – partial miscibility – Critical solution temperature – complete miscibility – Deviation from Raoult’s law distillation of completely miscible mixtures – Azeotropic mixtures – complete immiscibility – steam distillation Distribution law and its applications. THERMODYNAMICS: Definition of terms – First law of thermodynamics and its application to gases – Heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure – Isothermal and adiabatic changes Joule Thompson effect – work of expansion Reversible Pressure and maximum work. Heat changes in chemical reaction at constant pressure and constant volume and their inter relationship – Heats of formation, combustion, solution, dilution, and neutralization, Hess law and its applications – Kirchoff’s equation – second law of thermodynamics – Carnot cycle – entropy change elementary concept of entropy and free energy. ELECTROCHEMISTRY: (a) Conductance – Specific conductance, equivalent conductance – Measurements and their dependence  on concentration – Acid base conductometric titrations – Transport numbers and determination by Hittorf’s method – Kohlrausch law and its applications (b) Ionic Equilibria, Ostwald’s dilution law – Behaviour of strong electrolytes – Debye Huckel Theory ( non-mathematical treatment). Ionic product of water pH, buffer solutions, calculations of pH of buffer solutions Henderson equation – Acid base indicators – pH at the equivalence point, theories of indicators – Solubility product and common ion effect – Hydrolysis of salts – degree of hydrolysis and hydrolysis constant (c) Electromotive force of Electrochemical cells. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY s-Block Elements Group IA – The Alkali Metals : General properties – Standard electrode potentials – principles of extraction uses of metals – Reactivity of elements – Oxides – hydroxides – hydrides – halides – nitrides, carbonates and bicarbonates ammonia solutions – anomalous nature of Lithium. p-Block Elements – Group IIIB : General group trends principle of extraction – reactivity of elements – oxides – hydroxides – hydrides – halides – comparison of Boron with other elements of group III electron deficient compounds of Boron and Aluminium. Boric acid and Borax. Group VIIB : The Halogens : General group trends principles of extraction – reactivity of elements – electrode potentials – hydroxides – oxyacids – interhalogen compounds – pseudo halogens – basic character of Iodine. d-Block Elements: Electronic configuration – general properties – reactivity of metals – ionic size ionization potentials – Valencies – Ability to form complexes – General comparison of the elements of second and third transition series with the transition series with reference to ionic and covalent radii and oxidation states. f-Block Elements : Electronic configuration – general properties – ionic size – Oxidation states – Complexes – Lanthanide contraction – ionic, covalent radii and oxidation states. Co-ordination Compounds: Double salts and coordination compounds early theories of coordination compounds – Werner’s theory – Sidgwick’s electronic interpretation – EAN rule – nomenclature – magnetic criteria of bond type – valence bond theory Elementary treatment of crystal field theory, splitting of d-orbitals for octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral geometry – isomerism – stereoisomerism & geometrical isomerism – optical isomerism – Detection of formation of complexes – Composition by Job’s method – stability constants – Factors affecting the stability of complexes – importance of complexes in qualitative and quantitative analysis. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Reactivity of Organic Molecules : Types of organic reagents and reactions, fission of covalent bonds, electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical reagents – explanation of substitution, addition and elimination reactions with examples – bond lengths, bond angles, bond dissociation energies, bond polarization, inductive and mesomeric effects – acidity and basicity of organic molecules. Halogen Compounds : Reactivity based on structure – Preparation of alkyl halides – Mechanism and stereochemistry of nucleophilic substitution – relative reactivity of alkyl and aryl halides polyhalogen compounds, Fluoro compounds Isomerism in halogen derivatives. Hydroxy Compounds: Reactivity based on structure preparation alcohols and phenols – physical properties and hydrogen bonding chemical properties comparison of reactivity of alcohols and phenols – polyhydroxy compounds, ethylene glycol and glycerol – Industrial significance of methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol and phenol. Carbonyl Compounds : (Aldehydes and Ketones) : Reactivity based on structure – preparation and properties – mechanism of nucleophilic addition – Aldol, Cannizzaro, Grignard and benzoin condensation – Addition of NaHSO3, HCN differences in the reactivity of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and in aldehydes and ketones. Nitrogen Compounds : Alkyl nitrites and nitro alkanes – nitrobenzene – amines, classification, preparation , basic character reactivity and separation – aryl diazonium salt and their synthetic applications – cyanides and isocyanides. Carbohydrates: Classification – open chain and cyclic structures of glucose and fructose, Interconversion in monosaccharides ( mention the configuration of (+) glucose and (-) fructose). Heterocylic Compounds : Furan, Thiophene and Pyrrole – methods of synthesis, aromatic character and reactivity.