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Careers in Medicine

Careers in Medicine


Medicine is one of the most sort out and rewarding career for those interested in Science and dealing with sick people. Over the years, the field of medical studies have undergone various stages of development, it has become so vast that specialisations within are increasing day by day. There is great scope for medicine as a professional career. A doctor’s profession involves a lot of hard work and at the same time, it gives the satisfaction of curing patients at times even saving lives. It is a very demanding profession. To be in this profession is more a responsibility than a privilege. It is more of what you can give the community than what you can get from it. The increasing complicated lifestyles giving birth to a variety of ailments have made it impossible for General Physicians with an MBBS degree to handle all ailments. It is here that specialisation in a particular branch of medicine becomes a necessity. The major Specialisations include General Medicine, General Surgery, Paediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat), Psychiatry, Anesthesiology etc. There is also Super Specialisations which require a further 3-5 years of study in areas such as Plastic Surgery, Neurosurgery, Cardio-thoracic surgery, Conito-urinary surgery, Paediatric Surgery, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Clinical Haematology. The demand for medical professionals are tremendously increasing with the unfortunate upsurge of diseases and ailments day by day. At the same time super specialty hospitals are mushrooming both within the country and abroad offering employment opportunities. These along with liberalization of economy could bring better opportunities for these professionals in terms of remuneration, research and working facilities. Other than Allopathy, medicine also covers different systems like Homeopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani etc.

Eligibility


Educational: The basic or degree level qualification for a medical profession is MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine And Bachelor Of Surgery) which is of 5 1/2 years duration (including 1 year internship). Selection for MBBS is through an All India Entrance Examination. (Details in Entrance Details & Syllabus). The qualification required for entrance is 10+2 or equivalent with Science subjects. In the case of private medical colleges entrance examinations are conducted by the institutes individually. In addition to MBBS, candidate should complete House Surgency or internship for one year. The course content includes anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, forensic medicine, general medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, ENT (ear, nose and throat), gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, orthopaedics and preventive and social medicine. After MBBS, candidates can go for post graduate level studies (MD or MS) through another entrance. At the post graduate level, there is specialisation in Medicine and Surgery. Post Graduate Programmes (MD or MS) is usually of 3 years duration. The major Specialisations include General Medicine, General Surgery, Paediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat), Psychiatry, Anesthesiology etc. Those with Post Graduation (MD or MS or M.Sc in Medicine) can further opt for super-specialisation. i.e. they can go for Ph.D in any specialised area of medicine. MD or MS holders can complete the Doctoral Programme (Ph.D) in 2 years and M.Sc Medicine holders in 3 years. For practicing as a physician or surgeon, one needs to have completed the MBBS course from a recognised medical college and must possess a license from the State Medical Council to practice. Personal Attributes: Should have good memory and recollection ability, service mentality, stamina, patience, power of concentration, emotional stability, logical and analytical mind, willingness to learn throughout their career, ability to take timely decisions, self -motivation etc. A doctor is also expected to possess a strong sense of responsibility as the patient’s life depends entirely on him.

Job Prospects and Career Options


Career options/Specialisations Some of the common areas of specialisation in Medicine and Surgery are: General Practitioner or Physician: He diagnosis and treats the every day and sundry ailments of the human body. MBBS holders practice as physicians. General Surgeon: Is one who specialises in surgery for all org ans of the body. He can further specialise in specific areas. Duties involve examining the patient to determine the extent and nature of injury, treatment through operation and giving post operative care. Surgery is of various types Orthopaedic, Plastic, Neuro etc. Anaesthetist or Anaesthesiologists: Administers anesthetics to a patient undergoing surgical operation according to the nature of operation. It is he who makes the surgical procedure as painless as possible. His duties involve examining the patient to determine his capacity to withstand shock of operation and anesthesia. He/she has huge responsibility and has to be present throughout the operation. Psychiatrist: Diagnoses and treats mental disorders. Psychiatry has two major branches: The first is psychotherapy, the application of psychological techniques to the treatment of mental illnesses. This branch uses non-drug therapies and will not use physical techniques such as drugs or surgery. The second branch is psychiatry, where medical therapies are used. After diagnosing physical and behavioural symptoms, drugs and other means may be used for treatment. Neurologist: Diagnosis and treats diseases related to brain and nervous system. They also specialise in Neuro-surgery. Pediatrician: Treats newborn babies and children. Ophthalmologist or Eye Specialist: Treats diseases and disorders of eyes. Pathologist: Investigate the cause of various diseases and the possibilities for their prevention. His duties involve conducting chemical, microscopic and bacteriological test in labs and examining blood, tissues, urine etc. to find out the cause for disease. Cardiologist: Also called as heart specialist. Treats diseases related to heart and circulatory system. Gynaecologist-Obstetrician: Diagnosis and treats diseases and disorders of human female reproduction system. They care for pregnant women from conception through delivery. Dermatologist: One who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems. Orthopaedist: Deals with diseases connected to skeletal system. Orthopedics is that branch of medicine that deals with the correction of deformities and prevention of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, all bones and bony tissue. Gastroenterologist: Treats diseases related to liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bowels and gall bladder Radiologist: Diagnosis diseases and disorders by studying X-ray pictures of affected parts and gives treatment such as therapeutic radiation to affected parts of the body. ENT specialist: Treats disorders of ear, nose and throat Tuberculosis Specialist: Treats ailments due to infection by tubercular disease Venereologist: Treats venereal or sexual diseases. Bacteriologist: Also called Microbiologist. Conducts research and laboratory experiments on occurrence, growth, development, control and utilization of bacteria and other micro-organisms. Physiologist: Studies normal functioning of different organs and tissues of human body and investigates effects of physical environments such as variations in altitude, speed, temperature etc on its vital functions. Nutritionist: Gives instructions regarding food values and utilization of foods in human body to keep it healthy and control diseases. He prescribes diet for various diseases. Chiropodist: Also called pedicurist, treats foot diseases and abnormalities. He treats corns, blisters etc using surgical instruments. Job Prospects: They can find employment
  • In Government or private hospitals
  • In Nursing homes/clinics/health departments
  • In medical services of the army, navy and air force, under the Ministry of Defense
  • In charitable institutions
  • In medical colleges and training institutes as teachers
  • In research institutes and medical colleges as researchers
  • In the industrial sector
  • Private practice/ self employment

Remuneration


The earnings of a doctor through private practice depends on his/her popularity. The doctors who are working in government hospitalrs are well paid. The pay varies for those working with private hospitals. It may vary from Rs 10,000 to Rs 15,000. Dentists beginning their careers in government hospitals can expect their salaries to be around Rs 7,000, and those who hold post graduate degrees can begin at salaries of Rs. 8,000. A dentist setting up a private practice can earn, on an average, Rs 6,000 a month.

Other Streams in Medicine

Dentistry


Dentistry deals with medical or surgical treatment of diseases and disorders related to teeth, gums and soft tissues of mouth. The basic degree is BDS- Bachelor of dental surgery for which eligibility is 10+2 with Science. At Master level (MDS) specialisation is possible in areas such as Operative Dentistry, Oral Surgery etc. Admission to the Masters Programme requires BDS plus 2 years of experience. Selection of BDS is through the same All India Entrance Examination as for MBBS. (Details in Entrance Details & Syllabus). The qualification required for entrance is 10+2 or equivalent with Science subjects. In the case of private medical colleges entrance examinations are conducted by the institutes individually. Areas of Specialization: Dentistry has many specializations: ORTHODONTICS deals with straightening and aligning teeth and jaws. PERIODONTICS specialises in the care of gums and the diseases that might affect them. OPERATIVE DENTISTRY for root canal jobs, filling and cosmetic surgery. PROSTHODONTICS involves the making of artificial teeth. ORAL SURGERY deals specifically with operation on the mouth and jaw. ORAL PATHOLOGY provides the diagnosis for diseases that affect the mouth. Job Prospects: Job opportunities include employment in government or private hospitals, Defence Services, Nursing homes, Poly- clinics, Research and Health centers, Medical colleges etc. There is also scope to do your own practice while being visiting specialists at various hospitals or visiting faculty at Medical colleges.

Ayurveda


Ayurveda is a very ancient system which evolved around 600 BC in India. Ayurvedic treatments are person specific rather than disorder specific. It uses mixes of natural herbs as medicine and has very effective treatment for all kinds of ailments especially paralysis. In Ayurveda, which is basically a humoural medical system, diseases are understood as an imbalance between the body’s three humors. The three humors are Vata (nerve energy), Pitta (catabolic fire energy) and Kapha (anabolic nutritive energy). Eligibility for the Bachelor course is 10+2 with Science. The duration of the Bachelor programme i.e. BAMS- Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (Ayurvedacharya) is five and half years including six months of internship. For Post graduate study, ‘Ayurvedachaspati’, the period of study is three years. Ph.D is also awarded in Ayurveda (Ayurvedavidyavariddhi) which is of two years duration. Selection of BAMS is through the same All India Entrance Examination as for MBBS. (Details in Entrance Details & Syllabus). The qualification required for entrance is 10+2 or equivalent with Science subjects. In the case of private medical colleges entrance examinations are conducted by the institutes individually. They can find employment in Government and private hospitals, charitable institutions, medical colleges and training institutes as teachers, research institutes etc. Another option most suited for them is to do private practice.

Homeopathy


Homeopathy is a system of medicine which is practiced on the principle, that a drug and a disease which produce similar symptoms cancel each other out in some way thereby restoring the patients to health. The principle of ‘Like can cure Like’ forms the basis of Homeopathy. It is named after the Greek words, ‘ Homeo’ meaning similar and ‘Pathos’ meaning suffering or treatment by the same. This system of healing was founded by a German doctor, Samuel Christian Hahnemann (1755) and is recognised as an effective means of treating diseases. Though this system was developed abroad, it has become an integral part of the Indian way of life. There are many institutes imparting Homeopathy courses in India. Eligibility for bachelor course i.e. BHMS (Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine & Surgery) is 10+2 in physics, chemistry, Biology and English with minimum 45 % marks. The duration of the course is five and half years, including internship. There is also a Diploma course of four year duration. At post graduate level, there is MD in Homeopathy which is of three years duration. Selection of BHMS is through the same All India Entrance Examination as for MBBS. (Details in Entrance Details & Syllabus). The qualification required for entrance is 10+2 or equivalent with Science subjects. In the case of private medical colleges entrance examinations are conducted by the institutes individually. They can find employment in Government and private hospitals or clinics, charitable institutions, research institutes as researchers, medical colleges and training institutes as teachers etc. Another option to do private practice.